Kings of France

Bourbon Dynasty

Vaught-Jasper-Trusty-Molloy, Genealogy Tree

 

Descended from France's ruling Capetian dynasty, the house of Bourbon became monarchs of France, Spain and southern Italy.

The Bourbon Dynasty owes its name to the marriage (1268) of Robert, count of Clermont, sixth son of king Louis IX of France, to Beatrice, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon. Their son Louis was made duke of Bourbon in 1327. Though his line was dispossessed of the dukedom after two centuries, a junior line of the family went on to gain the crown of Navarre (1555) and of France (1589).

Other lines descended from the French Bourbon dynasty went on to rule Spain (from 1700-1808, 1813-1868, and 1875-1931, and again from 1975 to the present) and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1734-1806 and 1815-1860, and Sicily only in 1806-1816), but the French line lost the throne for a first time in 1792 and finally in 1830 after a sixteen-year restoration.

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Henry IV, the Great

 1589-1610

b. 13 Dec 1553, Pau, Béarn, Navarre1

d. 14 May 1610, Paris, France

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre (Par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre/Dei Gratia Francorum et Navarrae Rex)

Reign: 2 Aug 1589 - 14 May 1610

Chronology: 9 Jun 1572, succeeded her mother, Queen Jeanne, as King of Navarre

2 Aug 1589, succeeded Henri III as King of France

27 Feb 1594, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Chartres

30 Mar 1594, Parlement de Paris recognized him King of France

14 May 1610, deceased (assassination)

Other titles/names: Original name: Henri de Bourbon; Duke of Vendôme (duc de Vendôme) [from 17 Nov 1562]; Henri III, King of Navarre (Roi de Navarre) [9 Jun 1572 - 14 May 1610]

Henri de Bourbon was the son of Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. Henri, who inherited the throne of Navarre upon his mother's death on 9 Jun 1572, through his father, was in the sole legitimate line of descent from the Capetian kings of France. On the death of king Henri III's brother, François de France Duke of Anjou (10 Jun 1584), Henri de Bourbon became the heir presumptive to the throne of France. He was opposed by the Holy League unwilling to accept a Protestant king. Excluded from the succession by the Treaty of Nemours (1585) between Henri III and the Holy League, Henri fought the War of the Three Henrys. At the Battle of Coutras (20 Oct 1587) he defeated the French king's army. Meanwhile, the League had accepted the daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth of Valois as the next ruler of France. Henri III opposed this plan and had the League's leader, Henri Duke of Guise, assassinated on 23 Dec 1588. He was then reconciled with Henri de Bourbon. Their united forces laid siege to Paris on 30 Jul 1589, but on 2 Aug 1589 Henri III died as a result of assassination attempt, but on his death bed proclaimed Henri de Bourbon as his successor to the French crown.

Henri IV became king of France, but it would take him nine years of struggle against the Holy League to secure his kingdom. The League and duc de Mayenne, proclaimed Lieutenant General of the state and of the crown of France, supported the old Cardinal de Bourbon as "Charles X" in his bid for the crown. Henri had to withdraw from Paris occupied by the League. He won victories at Arques in 1589 and Ivry in 1590 and laid unsuccessful sieges of Paris in 1590 and of Rouen in 1591-92. He was able to capture Chartres and Noyon, but the war continued. After long hesitation, Henri undertook a conversion to Roman Catholicism in July 1593 and was crowned in Charters by the archbishop Nicolas de Thou on 27 Feb 1594. It removed all legitimate pretext for resistance, and important towns submitted to him. On 22 Mar 1594, Paris finally gave in to him and the Parlement de Paris recognized him the king of France (30 Mar 1594).

After Pope Clement VIII removed the ban of excommunication from Henri IV in 1595, Spain continued to support the remaining resistance to him in France, chiefly in Brittany under the leadership of duc de Mercoeur. Henri declared war on Spain in January 1595 and undertook operations against the League and its Spanish allies, defeating them at Fontaine-Française (June 1595) and retaking Amiens (September 1597). Duc de Mercoeur came to terms with the king in March 1598, and the Peace of Vervins was reached between France and Spain on 2 May 1598. On 13 Apr 1598, Henri signed the Edict of Nantes, which confirmed Roman Catholicism as the state church.

In the latter year difficulties arose with the Holy Roman emperor over the Cleves-Jülich succession. Henri decided on a military expedition to expel the imperial troops from Jülich. Henri IV was assassinated in Paris on 14 May 1610, by a fanatical Roman Catholic named François Ravaillac.

Notes:

1 Henri was born in the night of 12/13 Dec 1553. See Babelon, "Henri IV" ["entre minuit et une heure dans la nuit du 12 au 13 décembre 1553 (et non le 14, comme on l'a dit souvent) que les douleurs saisirent la mère..."].

Henri IV "The Great" King Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 8th cousins 14 times removed.

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Marie de Medici (Regent)

1610-17

Portrait of Marie de' Medici. c.1622. Oil on canvas.

by Peter Paul Rubens, Museo del Prado, Madrid

Maria de' Medici (French Marie de Médicis) (April 26, 1573 - July 3, 1642) was Queen and later Regent of France.

Born in Florence, Italy, she was the daughter of Francis, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In October 1600 she married Henri IV of France, as his second wife. She brought as part of her dowry, 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future king Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.

(Larger Version) The marriage was not a successful one. The queen feuded with Henri's mistresses, in language that shocked French courtiers. During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political taste or ability. Hours after Henri's assassination in 1610 she was confirmed as Regent by the Parlement of Paris. Not very bright, stubborn and growing obese, she was soon entirely under the influence of her unscrupulous Italian favourite, Concino Concini, who was created Marquis d'Ancre and Marshal of France. They dismissed Henri IV's able minister the duc de Sully. Through Concini and the Regent, Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France. Half Hapsburg herself, she abandoned the traditional anti-Hapsburg French policy. Throwing her support with Spain, she arranged the marriage of both the future king Louis and his sister Elizabeth to members of the Spanish Hapsburg royal family.

Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted, and the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented (May 15, 1614) to buy off the discontented princes. The opposition was led by Henri de Bourbon~Condé, Duc D'Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General (1614-15), the last time they would meet in France until the opening events of the French Revolution.

In 1616 her policy was strengthened by the accession to her councils of Richelieu, who had come to the fore at the meeting of the Estates General. However, in 1617 her son Louis XIII, already several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority, ordering the assassination of Concini, and exiling the Queen to the Chateau Blois and Richelieu to his bishopric. After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness" as she put it, she escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Gaston d'Orleans, which Louis' forces easily dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, who was allowed to hold a small court at Angers, and resumed her place in the royal council in 1621.

The portrait by Rubens (above right) was painted at this time. Marie rebuilt the Luxembourg Palace (Palais de Luxembourg) in Paris, with an extravagantly flattering cycle of paintings (see link) by Rubens as part of the luxurious decor.

After the death of his favorite, the duke of Luynes, Louis turned increasingly for guidance to Richelieu. Marie de Medici's attempts to displace Richelieu ultimately led to her attempted coup; for a single day, the journée des dupes, November 12, 1630, she seemed to have succeeded; but the triumph of Richelieu was followed by her exile to Compiègne in 1630, from where she escaped to Brussels in 1631, and later to Cologne, where she died in 1642, scheming against Richelieu to the end.

Honoré de Balzac encapsulated the Romantic generation's negative view:

"Marie de' Medici, all of whose actions were prejudicial to France, has escaped the shame which ought to cover her name. Marie de' Medici wasted the wealth amassed by Henri IV.; she never purged herself of the charge of having known of the king's assassination; her /intimate/ was d'Epernon, who did not ward off Ravaillac's blow, and who was proved to have known the murderer personally for a long time. Marie's conduct was such that she forced her son to banish her from France, where she was encouraging her other son, Gaston, to rebel; and the victory Richelieu at last won over her (on the Day of the Dupes) was due solely to the discovery the cardinal made, and imparted to Louis XIII., of secret documents relating to the death of Henri IV." (—Essay "Catherine de Medicis")

Maria Queen Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 6th cousins 13 times removed.

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Louis XIII, the Just

1610-43

b. 27 Sep 1601, Fontainebleau

d. 14 May 1643, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre)

Reign: 14 May 1610 - 14 May 1643

Coronation: 17 Oct 1610, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

Regent: 14/15 May 1610 - 2 Oct 1614 [minority]: Queen Regent (Reine régente): Marie de Médicis (b. 26 Apr 1573, Florence, Tuscany - d. 3 Jul 1642, Cologne, Holy Roman Empire)

End of reign: 14 May 1643, deceased

Other titles/names: Original name: Louis de France; First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [from 27 Sep 1601]; Count of Barcelona (comte de Barcelona) [23 Jan 1641 - 14 May 1653]; byname: the Just (le Juste)

The eldest son of King Henri IV and Marie de Médicis, Louis succeeded to the throne upon the assassination of his father in May 1610. The Parlement de Paris proclaimed Marie regent by decree of 14 May 1610 and the young king confirmed it by his lit de justice of 15 May 1610. Louis XIII was crowned at Reims by François, cardinal de Joyeuse, on 17 Oct 1610.

The Queen Mother was regent until Louis declared himself being of age in lit de justice to Parlement de Paris on 2 Oct 1614; but she continued to govern for three years thereafter. As part of her policy of allying France with Spain, she arranged the marriage between Louis and Anne of Austria, daughter of the Spanish king Philip III.

In 1621, Louis was faced with a Huguenot rebellion in southern France. He captured several Huguenot strongholds before concluding a truce with the insurgents in October 1622. In 1624 he made his principal minister Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu, who quickly became the dominant influence in the government. Immediately after the capture of the Huguenot rebel stronghold of La Rochelle in October 1628, Richelieu convinced the King to lead an army into Italy (1629); but his campaign increased tensions between France and the Habsburgs. Soon the pro-Spanish Catholic zealots led by Marie de Médicis began appealing to Louis to reject Richelieu's policy of supporting the Protestant states. During the dramatic episode known as the Day of the Dupes (10-12 Nov 1630), the Queen Mother demanded that Louis dismiss Richelieu. After some hesitation, the King decided to stand by his minister; Marie de Médicis and Gaston, duc d'Orléans, Louis's rebellious brother, withdrew into exile.

In May 1635, France declared war on Spain; and by August 1636 Spanish forces were advancing on Paris. Richelieu recommended evacuation of the city; but Louis overruled him. The King rallied his troops and drove back the invaders.

In 1642, Louis's young favorite, the Marquis de Cinq-Mars, instigated the last major conspiracy of the reign by plotting with the Spanish court to overthrow Richelieu; revelation of Cinq-Mars's treason made Louis more dependent than ever on the Cardinal. By the time Richelieu died in December 1642, substantial victories had been won in the war against the Spaniards, and Louis was respected as one of the most powerful monarchs in Europe. The King succumbed to tuberculosis five months later.

Louis XIII, King Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 7th cousins 12 times removed.

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Anne of Austria (Regent)

1643-51

Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen of France and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. During her relatively brief reign, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister.

She was born in Valladolid, Spain, as the daughter of Hapsburg parents, Philip III, king of Spain, and Margaret of Austria.

On November 24, 1615, she was married to King Louis XIII of France (1601-1643), part of the Bourbon Dynasty. They would have two sons, Louis (the dauphin) and Philippe I, Duke of Orl?s. The marriage was not a happy one, filled with mistrust, and King Louis tried to prevent her obtaining the regency after his death. However, in 1643 Parliament ratified her powers on his death. Their five-year-old son was crowned King Louis XIV of France. Anne assumed the regency but entrusted the government to the prime minister, Jules Mazarin, who was believed to be her lover.

With Mazarin's support, Anne overcame the revolt led by the 1651, when her son Louis XIV officially came of age, her regency legally ended. However, she kept much power and influence over her son. In 1659, the war with Spain ended. The following year, peace was cemented by the marriage of the young King Louis to Anne's niece, the Spanish Hapsburg princess Marie-Th?se of Austria.

In 1661, Anne retired to a convent where she later died.

Queen Anne's memoirs were published in 1662 by Fran?s de la Rochefoucauld. Many view her as a brillant and cunning woman and she is one of the central figures in Alexandre Dumas' novel, The Three Musketeers.

Anna Princess Of SPAIN and the MOLLOYS are 7th cousins 12 times removed.

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Louis XIV, the Great

1643-1715

b. 5 Sep 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

d. 1 Sep 1715, Versailles

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre)

Reign: 14 May 1643 - 1 Sep 1715

Coronation: 7 Jun 1654, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

Regent: 18 May 1643 - 7 Sep 1651 [minority]: Queen Regent (Reine régente): Marie-Anne-Maurice d'Autriche (b. 22 Sep 1601, Valladolid, Spain - d. 20 Jan 1666, Paris, France)

End of reign: 1 Sep 1715, deceased

Other names/titles: Original name: Loius-Dieudonné de France; First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [from 5 Sep 1638]; Count of Barcelona (comte de Barcelona) [14 May 1643 - 18 Jan 1653]; Duke of Luxembourg (duc de Luxembourg) [4 Jun 1684 - 20 Sep 1697]; bynames: the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), the Great (le Grand)

Louis was the son of Louis XIII and his Spanish queen, Anne of Austria (Anne d'Autriche). He succeeded his father on 14 May 1643. His mother was confirmed regent by the decree of the Parlement de Paris and king's lit de justice on 18 May 1643 and governed the kingdom until Louis reached the age of 13. The regency ended on 7 Sep 1651, when Louis XIV declared himself major in his address to Parlement.

In 1648 the nobles and the Paris Parlement rose against the crown and the prime minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin. This marked the beginning of the long civil war known as the Fronde. In 1653 Mazarin was victorious over the rebels and then proceeded to construct an extraordinary administrative apparatus. The cardinal died on 9 Mar 1661, and Louis XIV informed his ministers that he intended to assume all responsibility for ruling the kingdom. He was backed up first by the great ministers Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the Marquis de Louvois, and Hugues de Lionne, among whom he fostered dissension.

Spain and the Holy Roman emperor joined the Dutch in the coalition against France, but Louis XIV managed to defeat it and dictated terms to the enemy. He had extended the frontier of France in the north by annexing part of Flanders and in the east by seizing Lorraine and the Franche-Comté.

In 1680 the Marquise de Montespan, who had replaced Mme de La Vallière as Louis's mistress in 1667, was implicated in the Affair of the Poisons, a scandal in which a number of prominent people were accused of sorcery and murder. Fearful for his reputation, the King dismissed Mme de Montespan and imposed piety on his entourage. In 1682 the seat of government was transferred to Versailles.

In 1688-89 the fall of the Stuarts and William of Orange's accession to the throne of England reversed the situation to the detriment of France. Viewing French Protestants as potential rebels, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed their freedom of worship, in 1685.

England, the Dutch, and the Emperor united in the Grand Alliance to resist Louis's expansionism. The resulting war lasted from 1688 to 1697. Despite many victories, Louis gave up part of his territorial acquisitions when he signed the Treaty of Rijswijk. In 1700, Charles II, the last Habsburg king of Spain, died, bequeathing his kingdoms to Louis's grandson, Philip of Anjou (Philip V). Louis accepted the inheritance. In the War of the Spanish Succession the anti-French alliance was reactivated by William of Orange. The disasters of the war were so great that, in 1709, France came close to losing all the advantages gained over the preceding century.

Finally, a palace revolution in London, bringing the pacific Tories to power, and a French victory over the imperial forces at the Battle of Denain combined to end the war. The treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt, and Baden, signed in 1713-14, cost France its hegemony but left its territory intact. It retained its recent conquests in Flanders and on the Rhine, which were so much in the order of things that neither later defeats nor revolutions would cause it to lose them.

Louis XIV died in 1715, at the age of 77.

Louis XIV "The Great" King Of FRANCE And of Navarre and the MOLLOYS are 10th cousins 12 times removed.

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Philippe II of Orleans (Regent)

1715-23

Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 - December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674-1701), and then Duke of Orleans (1701-1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. His regency being the last in the kingdom of France, he is still commonly referred to as le Régent and his regency as la Régence.

He was born in Saint-Cloud, the son of Philippe I of Orleans and nephew of King Louis XIV. He married Françoise-Marie de Bourbon in 1698.

On the death of Louis XIV, the late king's five-year-old great-grandson was crowned king Louis XV of France and the then forty-one-year-old Philippe became Regent.

Philippe was a professed atheist who read the satirical works of Francois Rabelais inside a Bible binding during mass and a man who liked to hold orgies on religious high holidays. He acted in the plays of Moliere and Racine, composed the music for an opera, and was a gifted painter and engraver.

A liberal and imaginative man, he was however, often weak, inconsistent and vacillating. Nonetheless, as Regent, he changed the manners of the ruler and his nobles from the hypocrisy of Louis XIV to complete candor. He was against censorship and ordered the reprinting of books banned under the reign of his uncle. Reversing his uncle's policies again, Philippe formed an alliance with England, Austria, and the Netherlands, and fought a successful war against Spain that established the conditions of a European peace.

Philippe promoted education, making the Sorbonne tuition free and he opened the Royal Library to the public. He is most remembered for the debauchery he brought to Versailles and for the John Law banking scandal.

He died at the Palace of Versailles and was buried in the city of his birth, Saint-Cloud.

Philippe had only one son: Louis, duke of Orleans (1703-1752)

Philippine Elisabeth Princess Of ORLEANS and the MOLLOYS are 19th cousins 3 times removed.

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Louis XV, the Well-Beloved

1715-74

b. 15 Feb 1710, Versailles

d. 10 May 1774, Versailles

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre)

Reign: 1 Sep 1715 - 10 May 1774

Coronation: 25 Oct 1722, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

Regent: 2/12 Sep 1715 - 22 Feb 1723 [minority]: Regent (Régent): Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans (b. 2 Aug 1674, Saint-Cloud - d. 2 Dec 1723, Versailles)

End of reign: 10 May 1774, deceased

Other names/titles: Original name: Louis de France; Duke of Anjou (duc d'Anjou) [15 Feb 1710 - 8 Mar 1712]; First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [8 Mar 1712 - 1 Sep 1715]; byname: the Well-Beloved (le Bien-Aime)

Louis was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the son of Louis, duc de Bourgogne, and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. Because his parents and his only surviving brother had all died in 1712, he became king at the age of five on the death of Louis XIV (1 Sep 1715). The Parlement de Paris proclaimed Philippe, duc d'Orléans, regent by decree of 2 Sep 1715 and Louis XV confirmed it by his lit de justice of 12 Sep 1715.

Until he attained his legal majority duc d'Orléans governed France. Louis XV assumed the government on 22 Feb 1723, when he addressed the Parlement with lit de justice officially ending the regency. After the death of d'Orléans (2 Dec 1723), Louis appointed as his first minister duc de Bourbon-Condé. Louis's tutor, the bishop de Fleury, replaced Bourbon as chief minister in 1726. Louis XV's personal influence on French policy became perceptible only after Fleury's death in 1744. While his government degenerated into factions, Louis isolated himself at court and occupied himself with a succession of mistresses, several of whom exercised considerable political influence. Marquise de Vintimille, Louis's mistress from 1739 to 1741, sponsored the war party that brought France into the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) against Austria and Great Britain. In September 1745 the king took as his official mistress Marquise de Pompadour whose political influence lasted until her death in 1764.

In 1756 the king, prompted by Madame de Pompadour, concluded an alliance with Austria. France and Austria then went to war with Great Britain and Prussia (Seven Years' War, 1756-63), but Louis's continental commitments to the Austrians prevented him from concentrating his country's resources on the crucial colonial struggle with Great Britain. As a result, by 1763 France had lost to the British almost all her colonial possessions in North America and India. Although Madame de Pompadour's favorite, Duc de Choiseul, restored France's military strength, the failure of Louis's diplomacy in Poland enabled Russia, Austria, and Prussia to partition Poland (1772) and eliminate French influence in central Europe. Although Louis had been popular in his youth, he had gradually earned the contempt of his subjects. During the later years of his reign, an attempt was made to strengthen the waning authority of the crown by withdrawing from the Parlements the privilege of obstructing royal legislation. In 1771 the chancellor, René de Maupeou, restricted the Parlement de Paris to purely judicial functions.

Apart from this reform, Louis XV's long reign had been marked by a decline in the crown's moral and political authority, as well as by reverses in foreign and military affairs.

Louis XV "Le Bien-aimbe", King Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 13th cousins 9 times removed.

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Louis XVI, the Beloved

1774-1792

b. 23 Aug 1754, Versailles

d. 21 Jan 1793, Paris

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre) [to 14 Sep 1791]

By the Grace of God and by the Constitutional Law of the State, King of the French (Par la grâce de Dieu et par la loi constitutionnelle de l'Etat, Roi des Français) [from 14 Sep 1791]

Reign: 10 May 1774 - 21 Sep 1792

Chronology: 10 May 1774, succeeded his grandfather, Louis XV

  11 Jun 1775, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

  25 Jun 1791, suspended by decree of the National Assembly

  14 Sep 1791, reinstated by swearing the oath to maintain the Constitution of 1791

  10 Aug 1792, suspended by decree of the National (Legislative) Assembly

  21 Sep 1792, kingship abolished by the National Convention

Other names/titles: Original name at birth: Louis-Auguste de France; Duke of Berry (duc de Berry) [23 Aug 1754 - 20 Dec 1765], First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [20 Dec 1765 - 10 May 1774]

Louis-Auguste was the third son of Dauphine Louis and Marie-Josèphe de Saxe. His elder brothers died in young age (21 Feb 1754 and 22 Mar 1761). Known as the Duke of Berry from his birth, Louis-Auguste became the heir apparent upon his father's death (20 Dec 1765). He succeeded his grandfather, King Louis XV, in 1774.

Louis XVI's reign before 1789 witnessed the increasing strength of the aristocratic reaction. In July 1788, the king summoned the Estates-General, which convened on 5 May 1789 in Versailles. After the representatives of the Third Estate proclaimed themselves a National Assembly and proposed to provide France with a constitution, the king conceded, but soon ordered the troops to enter Paris and surroundings. This action coincided with the dismissal of popular finance minister Jacques Necker (11 Jul 1789) and triggered the revolt in Paris (13-14 Jul 1789), which culminated in the fall of the Bastille. Louis XVI deferred to the demands of revolutionary Parisians, but he reluctantly accepted the abolition of feudal rights (4 Aug 1789) and promulgation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 Aug 1789) by the National Assembly. Responding to popular pressure, the royal family returned from Versailles to Paris (6 Oct 1789).

While the Assembly was drafting a constitution for the new regime, Louis escaped from the capital (20-21 Jun 1791) to the eastern frontier, but was caught at Varennes and brought back to Paris (25 Jun 1791). On the same day, the National Assembly promulgated a decree suspending royal functions. Louis was not reinstated in his executive authority until he confirmed in writing his accepting of the Constitution (13 Sep 1791) and took an oath to maintain it in his address to the Assembly on 14 Sep 1791.

The outbreak of the war with Austria (April 1792), the intrigues of Queen Marie-Antoinette with the Austrians and the publication of the Brunswick manifesto, threatening the destruction of Paris if the safety of the royal family were again endangered, led to the capture of the Tuileries by the people of Paris and provincial militia on 10 Aug 1792. It also led to a new suspension of the king's powers by the National (Legislative) Assembly (decree of 10 Aug 1792) and to the final abolition of kingship by the National Convention (21 Sep 1792). Louis XVI was tried by the National Convention and sentenced to death by the votes of 387 deputies against 334 (16-17 Jan 1793). He was guillotined in the Place de la Révolution in Paris on 21 Jan 1793.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France

Louis XVI, King Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 15th cousins 7 times removed

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Louis XVII

1793-95

Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 - June 8, 1795) also known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy (1785-1789), Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois (1789-1791), and Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France (1791-1793), was the son of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette. The image shown here is a photo of a portrait painted of the young dauphin in 1789 by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun.

During the French Revolution, Prince Louis was imprisoned with his parents. As the eldest living son of King Louis XVI, he was proclaimed king of France on January 28, 1793 by the declaration of his uncle, "Monsieur" (Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, the Comte de Provence) issued in exile in the city of Hamm, near Düsseldorf, Westphalia, a territory of the Archbishop of Cologne. The legalities of this are unclear, since France was at that time a republic. However, later the country accepted Louis-Stanislas-Xavier as Louis XVIII of France, thereby recognizing Louis XVII's reign through the numbering of kings.

Cruelly taken from his mother, the innocent child was held at the forbidding Temple Prison to prevent any monarchist bid to free him. He was ironically called a "Capet," the family name that the revolutionaries attributed to the French royals, following their refusal of nobility titles; Hugh Capet was the founder of the ruling dynasty. The little boy was forced into hard work as a cobbler's assistant and was taught to curse his parents. He was officially reported to have died in the prison from what is today recognized to have been tuberculosis. An autopsy was carried out on the child's frail body at the prison and as tradition dictated, his heart was removed by the chief doctor. Reports, however, quickly spread that the body was not that of Louis XVII and that he had been spirited away alive by sympathizers with another child's body left in his place.

Would-be royal heirs popped up across Europe for decades, and some of their descendants still have small but loyal retinues of followers today.

The heart changed hands many times; in 1975, it was finally placed at the royal crypt in the Saint Denis Basilica outside Paris, burial place of his parents and many other members of France's royal families.

Louis XVII of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 16th cousins 6 times removed.

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