Kings of France

Carolingian Dynasty  

Vaught-Jasper-Trusty-Molloy, Genealogy Tree

 

The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. The name Carolingian itself comes from the dynasty's most prominent figure, Charles the Great, better known as Charlemagne (in Latin: Carolus Magnus).

However, the dynasty is usually considered to have been founded by Arnulf of Metz, Bishop of Metz in the late 7th century, who wielded a great deal of power and influence in the Merovingian kingdoms. Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of the Kingdom of Austrasia, was succeeded by his son Charles Martel as Mayor, who in turn was the father of Pippin III, called "the Short". Pippin had become king after having used his position as Mayor to garner support among many of the leading Franks, as well as the pope, in order to depose the last Merovingian king, Childeric in 751. Charlemagne, Pippin's son, became King of the Franks in 768 and was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800.

After the division of the Empire in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the Carolingians initially continued to hold the throne in all three sections that were created.

In the West, which was the nucleus of later France, they continued to be the ruling dynasty until a minor branch of the family, the Capetians, ascended the (by that time) French throne in 987.

In the East, the kernel of the later Holy Roman Empire, the Carolingians ruled only until 911, the death of Louis the Child. Here, the Carolingians were succeeded by a Saxon dynasty commonly referred to as the Ottonians.

Having displaced the Merovingians, it was in the interests of the Carolingian Kings to depict their predecessors as useless anachronisms. Hence, the earlier Merovingians were depicted as evil and brutal tyrants while later Merovingians were propagandized as lazy and simple incompetents. If a Merovingian could be deposed and sent to a monastery, and a new king consecrated in his place, so too could a Carolingian. Less than a century later, Louis the Pious was temporarily displaced; and by the tenth century, the Carolingians were replaced altogether by the Capetian Kings.

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Pepin I, the Elder*

 (r.628-39)

* Mayors of the Palace

Saint Pepin of Landen, also known as Pepin the Elder (b. 580 - d. 640), was the Mayor of the Palace of the Austrasia under Merovingian kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I and Sigebert III from 615 or 623 to 640.

Pepin Mayor Of The Palace Of AUSTRASIA is the 47th great grandfather of the Molloys.

 

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Pepin II*

687-714

* Mayors of the Palace

Pippin of Herstal (Fr. Pépin), also known as Pippin the Younger, (b. 635 or 640 - December 16, 714).

He was the grandson of Pippin the Elder from the marriage of Ansegisel and Begga, the daughter of the Elder. As the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy from 680 to 714, he gradually controlled the Frankish court. The Merovingian king Theuderic III attempted to oust Pepin from his post, but he was defeated at Tertry in 687. Pepin then became the actual ruler of Austrasia, keeping a strong influence over the other Frankish kingdoms. His descendants continued to serve as Mayors of the Palace, eventually becoming the legal rulers of the Frankish kingdoms.

Around 670, Pippin II married Plectrude for her inheritance of substantial estates in the Moselle region. They produced at least two children and through them at least two significant grandchildren. These legitimate children and grandchildren claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and with the help of his widow Plectrude tried to maintain the position of Mayor of the Palace after Pepin II?s death on December 16, 714. However, Charles Martel, Pippin's son by his mistress, Alpaida (or Chalpaida), had gained favour among the Austrasians, primarily for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her rival's child by imprisoning him, he became the sole Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia.

Children

Drogo (c. 695-708)

Grimoald II (d. 714)

Charles Martel, the Hammer.

Childebrand (d. 751)

Pbepin Mayor Of The Palace Of AUSTRASIA is the 45th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Charles Martel, the Hammer*

714-41

* Mayors of the Palace

Charles Martel was born August 23, 676 in Heristal, Alsace, France and died on October 22, 741. He was Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks.

Martel is best remembered for winning the Battle of Tours (more correctly the Battle of Poitiers) in 732, which has been characterized as the salvation of Europe from the Arab menace. Martel's Frankish army defeated an Arab army fighting to spread Islam, which had swept through southern Asia and north Africa, before conquering most of the Iberian peninsula and much of southern France.

Although it took another two generations for the Franks to drive all the Arab garrisons out of what is now France and across the Pyrenees. Charles Martel's halt of the invasion of French soil turned the tide of Islamic advance, and the unification of the Frankish kingdom under Charles Martel, his son Pippin the Short, and his grandson Charlemagne prevented the Ummayad kingdom from expanding over the Pyrenees.

Charles Martel (Martel means "the Hammer") was the son of Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, and his concubine Alpaida. On Pippin's death in 714, the succession passed to an infant grandson, Theodoald. The faction of Austrasian nobles who supported Theodoald was led by his stepmother, Pippin's widow, Plectrude. Charles, who was already an adult, led a rival faction and prevailed in a series of battles against both invading Neustrian Franks and the forces of Plectrude. Between 718 and 723, Charles secured his power through a series of victories and by winning the loyalty of several important clerics. This he accomplished in part by donating lands and money for the foundations of abbeys such as Echternach.

In the subsequent decade, Charles led the Frankish army against the eastern duchies, Bavaria and Alemannia, and the southern duchies, Aquitaine and Provence (in Avignon, N?s, Montfrin (736),...). He dealt with the ongoing conflict with the Saxons to his northeast with some success, but full conquest of the Saxons and their incorporation into the Frankish empire would wait for his grandson Charlemagne.

Charles Martel's wives were (1) Chrotrud or Rotrude (690-724) (mother of Pippin and Carloman), and (2) Swanachild.

Charles Martel died on October 22, 741, at Quierzy in what is today the Aisne d?rtement in the Picardy region of France. He was interred at Saint Denis Basilica in Paris, France. He was succeeded by his sons, Carloman, Pippin the Short, and Grifo.

Charles "Martel" Mayor Of The Palace Of AUSTRASIA is the 44th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Carloman*

741-47

* Mayors of the Palace

Carloman (716-754) was the son of Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and Chrotrud. He was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks.

At the death of his father in 741, an attempt was made to divide power between Carloman and his brother Pippin III and Grifo. Carloman and Pippin soon ousted Grifo, and each turned his attention towards his own area of influence, Pippin in the West and Carloman in the East.

Carloman strengthened his authority in part via his support of Boniface, the so-called "Apostle to the Germans." This was in part a continuation of a policy begun under his grandfather Pippin of Herstal and continued to a lesser extent under Charles Martel. Carloman donated the lands for Boniface's most important foundation, the monastery of Fulda.

He also was instrumental in the calling of the Concilium Germanicum, the first major Church synod to be held in the eastern parts of the Frankish kingdoms.

These actions strengthened Carloman's position, and that of the family as a whole, especially in terms of their rivalries with other leading families like the Bavarian Agilolfings. They also demonstrated a clear tendency in Carloman for pious actions.

In 747, Carloman renounced his position and withdrew to a monastic life. He died in 754.

Carloman Prince Of FRANCE is the 43rd great grand uncle of the Molloys . Their common ancestors are Charles "Martel" Mayor Of The Palace Of AUSTRASIA and Rotrude (Chrotude) Duchess Of AUSTRASIA.

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Pepin III, the Short

747-51

* Mayors of the Palace

Pippin III (714 - 768) more often known as Pippin the Short (French, P?n le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was King of the Franks from 751 - 768.

He was born in 714 in Jupille, in what is today part of Belgium, but then a part of the kingdom of Austrasia. His father was Charles Martel, Mayor of the Austrasian Palace, and his mother was Chrotrud (690-724). In 740 Pepin married Bertrada of Laon. Of their children, two sons and one daughter survived to adulthood.

On the death of his father in 741, power was passed down to his sons, Pippin and Carloman. Power may also have been intended for his illegitimate son, Grifo, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pippin as mayor for the Merovingian king Childeric III. Childeric was unable to fulfill the most important function of a Frankish king, namely, to provide his warriors with a constant source of booty; Pippin was thus able to demonstrate to the leading men of the Franks that, as a better military leader, he was more qualified to be their king. He succeeded in obtaining the support of the papacy, which helped to discourage opposition. He was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of the Frankish leading-men and anointed at Soissons, perhaps by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz.

During his reign, Pippin III's conquests gave him more power than anyone since the days of King Clovis. He added to that power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint King Pippin in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patrician of the Romans. As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pippin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pippin's sons, Charles (born April 2, 742, eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman (born 751).

Pippin's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the church. In 759, he drove the Saracens out of France with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by making Aquitaine a part of his kingdom.

Pippin III died at Saint Denis on September 24, 768 and is interred there in the Saint Denis Basilica with his wife Bertrada (720 - July 12, 783).

His wife Bertrada is to his left.

 

 

 

 

 

Pbepin "The Short" King Of FRANCE is the 43rd great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Pepin III, the Short

751-68

Pippin III (714 - 768) more often known as Pippin the Short (French, P?n le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was King of the Franks from 751 - 768.

He was born in 714 in Jupille, in what is today part of Belgium, but then a part of the kingdom of Austrasia. His father was Charles Martel, Mayor of the Austrasian Palace, and his mother was Chrotrud (690-724). In 740 Pepin married Bertrada of Laon. Of their children, two sons and one daughter survived to adulthood.

On the death of his father in 741, power was passed down to his sons, Pippin and Carloman. Power may also have been intended for his illegitimate son, Grifo, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pippin as mayor for the Merovingian king Childeric III. Childeric was unable to fulfill the most important function of a Frankish king, namely, to provide his warriors with a constant source of booty; Pippin was thus able to demonstrate to the leading men of the Franks that, as a better military leader, he was more qualified to be their king. He succeeded in obtaining the support of the papacy, which helped to discourage opposition. He was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of the Frankish leading-men and anointed at Soissons, perhaps by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz.

During his reign, Pippin III's conquests gave him more power than anyone since the days of King Clovis. He added to that power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint King Pippin in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patrician of the Romans. As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pippin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pippin's sons, Charles (born April 2, 742, eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman (born 751).

Pippin's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the church. In 759, he drove the Saracens out of France with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by making Aquitaine a part of his kingdom.

Pippin III died at Saint Denis on September 24, 768 and is interred there in the Saint Denis Basilica with his wife Bertrada (720 - July 12, 783).

Pbepin "The Short" King Of FRANCE is the 43rd great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Carloman

768-771

Carloman, second son of Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was born in 751 and died December 4, 771.

After Pepin's death in 768 AD, Carloman and his older brother Charles divided his kingdom. There was considerable tension between the brothers, which may be the reason why, at Carloman's death, his wife Gerberga fled with her sons to the court of Desiderius, king of the Lombards. Because some sources state that Gerberga was Desiderius' daughter, it is difficult to judge the level of fraternal tension. Chronicles more sympathetic to Charles imply that he was bemused by Gerberga's action. Upon Carloman's death, his kingdom was absorbed into Charles', who then distributed portions to his own sons.

Carloman died December 4, 771 and is interred in the Reims Cathedral. The Cathedral is the coronation site of many French kings. This church, also in Reims, is the burial site of several of them and a couple of their wives and other family members.

 

 

 

 

 

Carloman, King Of BURGUNDY is the 42nd great grand uncle of the Molloys . Their common ancestors are Pbepin "The Short" King Of FRANCE and Berthe (Bertrade) Countess Of LAON.

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Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

771-814

Statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt

Charlemagne (April 2, 742 - January 28, 814; or Charles the Great, in German: Karl der Gro?, in Latin: Carolus Magnus, and hence the adjective form 'Carolingian'), was king of the Franks from 771 to 814, nominally King of the Lombards, and Roman Emperor.

Arguably the founder of a Frankish Empire in Western Europe, Charlemagne was the elder son of Pippin the Short (751-768), the first Carolingian king. Pippin the Short indulged in the monopoly of the coining of money, deciding on the opening and closure of minting shops, the weight, title and the subjects represented.

European coinage began with Pippin the Short who revived the system put in place by the ancient Greeks and Romans and kept going by the Eastern Roman Empire (1 libra = 20 solidi = 240 denarii).

On the death of Pippin the kingdom was divided between Charlemagne and his brother Carloman (Carloman ruled Austrasia). Carloman died on December 5, 771, leaving Charlemagne with a reunified Frankish kingdom. In 800, at Mass on Christmas day in Rome, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, a title that had been out of use in the West since the abdication of Romulus Augustulus in 476.

Pursuing his father's reforms, Charlemagne did away with the monetary system based on the gold sou. Both he and king Offa of Mercia took up the system set in place by Pippin. He set up a new standard, the livre (pound -- both monetary and unit of weight) which was worth 20 sous (as per the solidus, and later the shilling) or 240 deniers (as per the denari, and eventually the penny). During this period, the livre and the sou were counting units, only the denier was a coin of the realm.

Charlemagne applied the system to much of the European Continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England.

When Charlemagne died in 814, he was buried in his own Cathedral at Aachen. He was succeeded by his only son to survive him, Louis the Pious, after whose reign the empire was divided between his three surviving sons according to Frankish tradition. These three kingdoms would be the foundations of later France and the Holy Roman Empire.

After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded and most of Europe resorted to using the continued high quality English coin until about AD 1100.

It is difficult to understand Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters. None of them contracted a sacramental marriage. This may have been an attempt to control the number of potential alliances. After his death the surviving daughters entered or were forced to enter monasteries. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognized relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle.

Cultural significance

Charlemagne's reign is often referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance because of the flowering of scholarship, literature, art and architecture.

Most of the surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars. The pan-European nature of Charlemagne's influence is indicated by the origins of many of the men who worked for him: Alcuin, an Anglo-Saxon; Theodulf, a Visigoth; Paul the Deacon, a Lombard; and Angilbert and Einhard, Franks.

Charlemagne enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture. One of the great medieval literature cycles, the Charlemagne cycle or Matter of France, centers around the deeds of Charlemagne's historical commander of the Breton border, Roland, and the paladins who served as a counterpart to the knights of the Round Table; their tales were first told in the chansons de geste. Charlemagne himself was accorded sainthood inside the Holy Roman Empire after the 12th Century. He was a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies It is frequently claimed by genealogists that all people with European ancestry alive today are probably descended from Charlemagne. However, only a small percentage can prove descent from him. Charlemagne's marriage and relationship politics and ethics did, however, result in a fairly large number of descendants, all of whom had far better life expectancies than is usually the case for children in that time period. They were married into houses of nobility and as a result of intermarriages many people of noble descent can indeed trace their ancestry back to Charlemagne.

Unification legacy

The greatest European unifiers: Frederick Barbarossa, Louis XIV, Napoleon, Jean Monnet, Helmut Kohl, and present leaders such as Gerhard Schröder have all mentioned Charlemagne's name in the context of unification.

Wives

Himiltrude

Desiderata ?

Hildegard of Savory (married Abt 771) (758-783)

Fastrada (married 784) (died 794)

Luitgard (married 794) (died 800)

Children

Pepin the Hunchback (d. 810)

Charles, King of Neustria (d. 811)

Pepin, King of Italy (ruled 781-810)

Louis I The Pious, King of Aquitaine, Emperor (ruled 814-840)

Lothar (d. 780)

Six Daughters (Hildegarde?, Gisele?, Adelheid?, Bertha?, Lothaire?, Rotrud?)

Aupais ?

Charlemagne Emperor Of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE is the 41st great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Louis I, the Pious

814-840

Louis the Pious a.k.a. The Fair (778 - June 20, 840) (also German: Ludwig der Fromme and French: Louis le Pieux or Louis le D?nnaire) was Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 to 840.

Born in Casseuil-sur-Garonne, in today's Gironde, France, the second son of Charlemagne, Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child and sent there with regents and a court to rule in order to quiet rebellions which were forming after Charlemagne's defeat by the Moors in Spain.

When Charlemagne's other sons Pepin (810) and Charles (811) died, he was crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813. On his father's death in 814, he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions. He was crowned emperor by Pope Stephen V in Reims in 816. Louis used Benedict of Aniane, a Septimanian Visigothic nobleman and monastic founder to help him reform the Frankish church. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that all religious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of St Benedict, named for its creator, Benedict of Nursia (AD 480-550).

Like most Frankish men Louis, who was the second son of Charlemagne, expected to share his inheritance with his brothers Charles the Younger and Pepin. However, both of them died before he did - Charles in battle and Pepin subsequent to his blinding and confinement after joining in a revolt against his father - and Louis inherited the Frankish empire intact.

Louis laid out plans to divide his empire between his three sons from his first marriage with Ermengarde: Lothar (who received the title of co-emperor), Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German. He then remarried with Judith of Bavaria and had a fourth son, Charles the Bald. The redivision of the empire to take Charles into account caused his older sons to revolt in 822. After a settlement, Lothar rebelled again in 830. This pattern continued until Louis' death in 840.

After the Battle of Fontenay (841) and the Oath of Strasbourg, the dispute was only settled with the Treaty of Verdun (843) which split the Frankish realm into three parts, the kernels of later France and Germany.

Louis I "The Pious" Emperor Of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE is the 40th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Treaty of Verdun

In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories into three kingdoms. The eldest son, Lothar, had waged war against his brothers since the death of their father in 840. After his defeat at the Battle of Fontenay (841) and his brothers' alliance sealed in the Oath of Strasbourg, Lothar was willing to negotiate.

Each of the brothers was already established in one kingdom - Lothar in Italy, Louis the German in Bavaria, and Charles the Bald in Aquitaine. Lothar received the central portion of the empire - what later became the Low Countries, Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence, and Italy - and the imperial title as an honor without more than nominal overlordship. Louis the German received the eastern portion, much of what later became Germany through the shape of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles the Bald received the western portion, much of what later became France.

Though often presented as the beginning of a devolution or dissolution of Charlemagne's unitary empire, it in fact reflected the continued adherence to the Frankish idea of a partible or divisible inheritance rather than primogeniture.

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 Charles, the Bald

840-877

Charles the Bald (Charles I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles II) (823-877), Roman emperor and king of the West Franks, was the son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his second wife Judith. He was born when his elder brothers were already adults who had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a kingdom, first Alemannia (829), then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (839), at the expense of his half-brothers Lothair and Louis led to a rising on the part of these two against the emperor.

The death of the emperor in 840 was the signal for the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the emperor Lothar, and the two allies conquered him at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841. In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated oaths of Strassburg. The war was brought to an end by the treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the western Franks, which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Rhone, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro.

The first years of Charles' reign, up to the death of Lothar I in 855, were comparatively peaceful, and during them was continued the system of "confraternal government" of the sons of Louis the Pious, who had various meetings with one another, at Coblenz (848), at Meersen (851), and at Attigny (854). In 858, Louis the German, summoned by disaffected nobles to oust Charles, invaded the western Frankish kingdom. Charles fled to Burgundy, and was only saved by the help of the bishops and by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860 he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but met with a repulse. On the death of his nephew Lothar II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothar's dominions, but by the treaty of Mersen (870) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.

Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against the incessant rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who inflicted on the king the defeats of Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), the Bretons were somewhat successful. Charles also fought against the Normans, who devastated the country in the north of Gaul, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Charles was several times compelled to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders, and tried to put a barrier in their way by having fortified bridges built over all the rivers.

In 875, after the death of the emperor Louis II, Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, descended into Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial crown at Rome (29th December). Louis the German, who was also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself for Charles's success by invading and devastating his dominions. Charles was recalled to Francia, and after the death of Louis the German (28th August 876), in his turn made an attempt to seize his kingdom, but at Andernach met with a shameful defeat (8th October 876). In the meantime, John VIII, who was menaced by the Saracens, continued to urge Charles to come to Italy. After having taken at Quierzy the necessary measures for safeguarding the government of his dominions in his absence, Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition had been received with small enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by Boso, Charles's brother-in-law, who had been entrusted by him with the government of Lombardy, and they refused to come with their men to join the imperial army. At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, and died while crossing the pass of the Mont Cenis on the 5th or 6th of October 877.

Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis, the child of Ermentrude, daughter of a count of Orleans, whom he had married in 842, and who had died in 869. In 870 Charles had married Richilde, who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine, but none of the children whom he had by her played a part of any importance. Charles seems to have been a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors for preference from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, or of Hincmar of Reims.

Charles II The Bald is the 39th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Louis II

877-879

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 - April 10, 879), also known as Louis II and Louis le Begue, was the son of Charles II and Ermentrude of Orleans.

He married three wives and had four children. He and his first wife, Adelaide Judith of Paris, had one daughter, Ermentrude, Princess of the West Franks. He and his second wife, Luitgrade of Saxony, had one son, Charles III, King of France, King of West Franks. He and his third wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two children: Louis III and Carloman, both of whom were Kings of France.

Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had almost no impact on politics. On his death his realms were divided between two of his sons, Carloman and Louis III.

Louis II "The Stammerer" King Of FRANCE is the 38th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Carloman II

879-884

Carloman (died 884), king of Western Francia, was the eldest son of King Louis the Stammerer, and became king, together with his brother Louis III, on his father's death in 879.

Although some doubts were cast upon their legitimacy, the brothers obtained recognition and in 880 made a division of the kingdom, Carloman receiving Burgundy and the southern part of France. In 882 he became sole king owing to his brother's death, but the kingdom was in a very deplorable condition, and his power was very circumscribed. Carloman met his death while hunting on December 12, 884.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

Carloman Prince Of FRANCE is the 37th great grand uncle of the Molloys. Their common ancestors are Charles II "The Bald" Emperor Of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and Ermentrude (Irmtrud) Countess Of ORLEANS.

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Charles II, "The Bald"

884-888

Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire, also known as Charles le Gros. Born about 832, he was the son of Louis the German. Granted lordship over Swabia in 876, he became King of Italy in 879 upon the abdication of his older brother Carloman. Crowned Emperor in 881, his succession to the Kingdom of Saxony the following year reunited the entire Kingdom of the East Franks (Germany). In 884, upon the demise of the King of the West Franks (France), he achieved that throne as well, thus reviving, if only briefly, the entire Carolingian Empire, aside from Burgundy.

His rise to power was accompanied by hopes of a general revival in western Europe, but he proved unequal to the task. Lethargic and inept - he is known to have had repeated illnesses which are believed to have been epilepsy - he conducted several unsuccessful expeditions in Italy against Saracen incursions, and purchased peace with Viking raiders at Paris in 886.

Increasingly seen as spineless and incompetent, matters came to a head in late 887, when an ambitious nephew, Arnulf, fomented a general rebellion and seized Germany in November. Charles did nothing to prevent the move and, retiring to Neidingen, died two months later, on January 13, 888. His empire broke asunder, never to be restored - Arnulf retained the East while France was gained by Eudes, Count of Paris.

Charles II "The Bald" Emperor Of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE is the 38th great grandfather of the Molloys

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Odo, Count of Paris

888-898

Odo, or Eudes, king of the Franks from 888 to 898, was a son of Robert the Strong, count of Anjou (d. 866), and is sometimes referred to as duke of France and also as count of Paris.

For his skill and bravery in resisting the attacks of the Normans Odo was chosen king by the western Franks when the emperor Charles the Fat was deposed in 887, and was crowned at Compi?e in February 888.

He continued to battle against the Normans, whom he defeated at Montfaucon and elsewhere, but was soon involved in a struggle with some powerful nobles, who supported the claim of Charles, afterwards King Charles III, to the Frankish kingdom.

To gain prestige and support Odo owned himself a vassal of the German king, Arnulf of Carinthia, but in 894 Arnulf declared for Charles. Eventually, after a struggle which lasted for three years, Odo was compelled to come to terms with his rival, and to surrender to him a district north of the Seine. He died at La F? on January 1, 898.

See E Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome ii. (Paris, 1903); and E Favre, Eudes, comte de Paris et roi de France (Paris, 1893).

Odo, or Eudes, king of the FRANKS is the 34th great grand uncle of the Molloys. Their common ancestors are Robert Count of PARIS and Adelaide of TOURS.

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Charles III, the Simple

898-922

Charles III "the Simple" (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. He ruled as King of France from 898 to 922.

The posthumous son of King Louis II of France and Adelaide, Charles married Frederonne who died in 917 and he then married Eadgifu, the daughter of King Edward I of England, on October 7, 919.

As a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother Carloman or at the time Charles the Fat was deposed in 887 after he had succeeded Carloman. Instead, Odo, Count of Paris, succeeded Charles the Fat. Nonetheless, Charles became king at the death of Odo in 898.

The kingdom of Charles the Simple was almost identical with today's France, but he was obliged to concede what would become known as Normandy to the invading Norsemen.

In 922 some of the barons revolted and crowned Robert I, brother of Odo, king. In 923, at the battle of Soissons, King Robert was killed, but Charles was also defeated. Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy was elected king, and Charles III was imprisoned.

Charles III died on October 7, 929, in prison at P?nne, Somme, France and was buried there at the L'abbaye de St-Fursy. His son with Eadgifu would eventually be crowned King Louis IV of France.

Charles III "The Simple" King Of FRANCE is the 37th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Robert I of France

923-936

Robert I (a 865-923), king of France, or king of the Franks, was the younger son of Robert the Strong, count of Anjou, and the brother of Odo, or Eudes, who became king of the western Franks in 888.

Appointed by Odo ruler of several counties, including the county of Paris, and abbot in commendam of many abbeys, Robert also secured the office of duke of the Franks, a military dignity of high importance. He did not claim the crown of France when his brother died in 898; but recognizing the supremacy of the Carolingian king, Charles III, the Simple, he was confirmed in his offices and possessions, after which he continued to defend northern France from the attacks of the Normans.

The peace between the king and his powerful vassal was not seriously disturbed until about 921. The rule of Charles, and especially his partiality for a certain Hagano, had aroused some irritation; and, supported by many of the clergy and by some of the most powerful of the Frankish nobles, Robert took up arms, drove Charles into Lorraine, and was himself crowned king of the Franks at Reims on June 29 922. Collecting an army, Charles marched against the usurper, and on June 15 923, in a stubborn and sanguinary battle near Soissons, Robert was killed, according to one tradition in single combat with his rival.

Robert left a son, Hugh the Great, duke of the Franks, and his grandson was Hugh Capet, king of France.

Robert Count of PARIS is the 34th great grandfather of the Molloys.

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Raoul or Rudolph king of the Franks and duke of Burgundy

936-954

Raoul or Rudolph (d. 936), king of the Franks and duke of Burgundy.

Rudolph II King of Both BURGUNDIES is the 34th great grandfather of the Molloys .

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Louis IV

954-986

Louis IV d'Outremer: King of France 936 to 954, member of the Carolingian dynasty.

Born September 10, 920 at Laon, Aisne, France, the son of King Charles III and Princess Eadgifu of England.

He was only three years old when his mother took him "over the sea" to the safety of England after his father was imprisoned. Hence the nickname.

On the death of his father in 936, Louis was summoned back to France and crowned king. Effectively, his sovereignty was limited to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a keenness beyond his years in obtaining the recognition of his authority by his feuding nobles. Nonetheless, his reign was filled with conflict in particular with Hugh the Great, count of Paris.

In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the Emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, but then married Otto's sister Gerberge (914 - May 5, 984), Princess of Germany and they had two sons and a daughter:

Lothair I, (941-986) Western Frankish King

Charles, (954-986) Duke of Lower Lortharingia

Mathilde King Louis IV died September 10, 954 at Reims, Marne, France and is interred there at Saint-Remi Cathedral. He was succeeded by his son Lothair.

Louis IV "Transmarinus" King Of FRANCE is the 33rd great grandfather of the Molloys

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Lothaire, King of France

954-986

Born 0941 Laon Champagne. Died 2 Mar 0986 Compiaegne Bourgogne. Burial: Abbaye De St Rbemy, Reims, Champagne.

The Reims Cathedral is the coronation site of many French kings. This church, also in Reims, is the burial site of several of them and a couple of their wives and other family members.

Lothaire, King Of FRANCE is the 34th great grand uncle of the Molloys. Their common ancestors are Louis IV "Transmarinus" King Of FRANCE and Gerberge Queen Of FRANCE.

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Louis V, the Indolent

986-987

King Louis V of France (ca. 967 ? May 987) is also known as Louis le Fain?t ("Louis Do-Nothing", pron. "loo-ee leuh feh-ney-ahnt"), Louis the Indolent, and Louis the Sluggard. The son of the Frankish king Lothair and his wife Emma, a daughter of the King of Italy, Louis was crowned in June of 979 but did not actually assume power until Lothair's death in 986. Louis V was the last Carolingian king of France and reigned in Laon from 986 until his own death, at the age of 20, in 987. It may be because he reigned for only one year that medieval biographers awarded him the title "qui nihil fecit" -- "who did nothing".

He was married to Adelaide, the widowed Countess of G?udan and Aquitaine and the sister of the Count of Anjou. He and Adelaide had no children together, though, and she soon fled his house.

He inherited a battle between his father's line of elected kings, which had been interrupted twice by the Robertian kings, and the house of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I. As defender of Rome, Otto had the power to name the clergy in Carolingian territory, and the clergy he had named were not supporting the Carolingians.

One particular foe was Adalberon (Ascelinus), the bishop of Laon, whom Otto I had elevated to the powerful archbishopric of Reims. During Lothair's time, Adalberon had tried to negotiate an alliance between the two houses; but the deal had gone bad, and Lothair had tried him for treason in 986. Hugh Capet, a cousin of Lothair and an ally of Adalberon, had stormed in, broken up the trial, saved Adalberon, and slain Lothair. Louis V inherited the throne Lothair's widow, Emma, married a descandant of Otto I, and Louis V received Adalberon again.

Louis died in late May of 987, either accidentally or of poisoning by his mother; at the time of his death, he was again trying Aldaberon for treason. He left no heirs, so his uncle Charles, the Duke of Lower Lorraine, was advanced as the hereditary successor to the throne. But the clergy, including both Adalberon and Gerbert (who later became Pope Sylvester II), argued eloquently for Hugh Capet, who not only was of noble blood but had proven himself through his actions and his military might. Capet was elected to the Frankish throne and Adalberon crowned him, all within two months of Louis V's death. Thus the Carolingian dynasty ended and the Capetian began.

Louis V, "The Lazy", King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 1st cousins 35 times removed. Their common ancestors are Louis IV "Transmarinus" King Of FRANCE and Gerberge Queen Of FRANCE.

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