Kings of France

Valois Dynasty

Vaught-Jasper-Trusty-Molloy, Genealogy Tree

 

The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France. They were descendants of Charles of Valois, the second son of King Philip III of France.

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Philip VI, the Fortunate

1328-50

b. 1293

d. August 22, 1350, Nogent-le-Roi

Titles: Regent of the Kingdom of France (Régent du royaume de France) [February - April 1, 1328]

  By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France) [April 1, 1328 - August 22, 1350]

Reign: Regent: February - April 1, 1328

King: April 1, 1328 - August 22, 1350

Coronation: May 29, 1328, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

End of reign: August 22, 1350, deceased

Name/byname: Also called: Comte d'Alençon (1293-1326), Comte de Chartres (1315-13..), Comte du Maine (1315-1332), Comte de Valois (1326-1344)

The elder son of Charles de Valois and grandson of King Philippe III, Philippe assumed the regency after the death of his cousin, Charles IV, until the end of the pregnancy of Charles' widow, Jeanne d'Évreux. When Jeanne produced a daughter (Blanche), who could not succeed to the throne according to the Salic law, Philippe VI became king and was crowned at Reims on May 29, 1328, by the archbishop Guillaume de Trie.

Philippe VI was the first French king of the house of Valois. By the victory of Cassel (Aug. 23, 1328), Philippe reinstated the count of Flanders Louis de Nevers, whom he supported against the rebellious Flemings. After 1337, Philippe's reign was dominated by the opening phases of the Hundred Years War with England. In 1340 the French fleet was destroyed at Sluis. The following year Philippe intervened in the succession conflict in Brittany on behalf of his nephew Charles de Blois; King Edward III of England landed in Britanny to aid Charles's rival Jean de Montfort. Philippe and Edward signed a three-year truce in 1343, but it lasted only two years. A serious crisis forced Philip to summon to Paris the estates of the kingdom, which took some measures to appease public opinion and to relieve the burdens of administration.

Edward III invaded Normandy and defeated Philippe at Crécy (Aug. 25, 1346). In 1347 the English captured Calais, which they held for nearly two centuries. To conciliate opponents, the government was obliged to entrust finances to three abbots. A new meeting of the estates in November 1347 again forced the King to recast his council. Philippe resorted to extraordinary sources of revenue, including the sale of privileges to provincial assemblies, a general salt tax (gabelle), loans, and the debasement of the coinage.

The spread of the Black Death in 1348 and 1349, overshadowed all political questions. Philippe VI fell victim to the plague on August 22, 1350, and was succeeded by his son, Jean II.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

Philippe VI "de Valois" FRANCE is the 20th great grand uncle of the Molloys . Their common ancestors are *harles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Jean II, the Good

1350-64

b. 26 Apr 1319, Château du Gué de Maulny, near Le Mans, France

d. 8 Apr 1364, London, England

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France/Dei Gratia Francorum Rex)

Reign: 22 Aug 1350 - 8 Apr 1364 1

Chronology: 22 Aug 1350, succeeded his father, Philippe VI

26 Sep 1350, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

8 Apr 1364, deceased

Other names/titles: Duke of Normandy, Anjou and Maine (duc de Normandie, d'Anjou et du Maine), [from 17 Feb 1332]; byname: the Good (French: le Bon)

Jean was the first son of Philippe VI and Jeanne de Bourgogne. He was made count of Maine and Anjou in 1332, duke of Normandy in 1332, and duke of Guyenne in 1345, and succeeded his father on 22 Aug 1350.

An inept ruler, Jean II began his reign by executing the constable of France giving his office to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda, and by appointing dishonest and unpopular advisers. Because of a general economic crisis, he subsequently debased the coinage for the expenses of the Hundred Years War between France and England. His quarrels with his ambitious son-in-law, Charles II of Navarre, lasted throughout his reign. Charles desired an alliance with Edward, which so frightened Jean that he made peace with Charles on 10 Sep 1355. On 16 Apr 1356, at Rouen, Jean took his revenge on Charles by having him imprisoned.

Meanwhile Edward III of England, displeased by alliance between Jean and Charles, invaded France in 1355. At the same time, Edward's son Edward, prince of Wales (later called the Black Prince), attacked southern France. Unable to halt the English invasions because he lacked funds, Jean gathered the States General to seek money and to impose an unpopular salt tax. Jean first went to defend Paris and Chartres. He and the Prince of Wales finally met near Poitiers in September 1356. The French army was decimated, and Jean was taken prisoner.

Jean was taken to London in April 1357, where he concluded treaties (1358, 1359) so harsh that they were repudiated in France. During his captivity, the dauphin (later King Charles V) acted as regent and dealt with several rebellions, such as the Jacquerie. Finally the treaties of Brétigny and of Calais (May and October 1360) fixed Jean's ransom at 3,000,000 gold écus and surrendered most of southwestern France to Edward. On 9 Oct 1360, Jean was released to raise a ransom that France could not afford to pay, and hostages were accepted in his place. When one of the hostages escaped, Jean, feeling dishonored, returned to England, where he died.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

Notes:

1 Absent from France: before 26 Sep 1356 - 9 Oct 1360 (captivity); Dec 1362 - Aug 1363 (trip to Avignon); Dec 1363 - 8 Apr 1364 (captivity). The eldest son of Jean II, Charles de France Duke of Normandy and dauphin of Viennois (future King Charles V) acted as Lieutenant General of the Kingdom (Jun 1355 - 14 Mar 1357, 17 Dec 1362 - 8 Apr 1364) and as Regent of the Kingdom (14 Mar 1357 - Oct 1360).

Jean II, "Le Bon" FRANCE and the Molloys are 1st cousins 21 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Charles V, the Wise

1364-80

b. 21 Jan 1338, Château du Bois de Vincennes

d. 16 Sep 1380, Beauté-sur-Marne

Title: Regent of the Kingdom (Régent le royaume de France)

Term: 14 Mar 1358 - 4 Oct 1360

Chronology: 14 Mar 1358, formally proclaimed Regent of the Kingdom

4 Oct 1360, King Jean II reassumed royal authority after his return from captivity in England

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France/Dei Gratia Francorum Rex)

Reign: 8 Apr 1364 - 16 Sep 1380

Chronology: 19 May 1364, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

16 Sep 1380, deceased

Other names/titles: Dauphin of Viennois (dauphin de Viennois) [from 16 Jul 1349]; Duke of Normandy (duc de Normandie) [from 7 Dec 1355]; byname: the Wise (French: le Sage)

Charles was the elder son of King Jean II and Bonne de Luxembourg. Having purchased the Dauphiné in 1349, Charles bore the title of dauphin until his coronation. Preoccupied with the war against the English, Jean appointed him lieutenant general of the kingdom (June 1355) to govern in king's absence. After Jean was captured by the English at Poitiers (19 Sep 1356), Charles completely assumed the government of France. He continued to rule as lieutenant general and when he reached the age of 21, he assumed the title of Regent (14 Mar 1357). Charles dealt successfully with the Jacquerie revolt, with the intrigues of King Charles II of Navarre, and with the popular movement headed by Étienne Marcel, who had armed Paris against the dauphin. On his return from captivity, Jean confirmed all actions undertaken by Charles during the regency in a royal decree on 14 Oct 1360.

Charles again became regent by the will of Jean II (17 Dec 1362), who departed for a long trip to Avignon to meet with the newly elected pope Urban V. On the death of Jean at London (8 Apr 1364), Charles succeeded to the throne of France and was crowned at Reims along with his Queen, Jeanne de Bourbon, by the archbishop Pierre de Craon on 19 May 1364.

Charles challenged the King of Navarre over the succession of Burgundy. Bertrand du Guesclin, Charles's brilliant military leader, defeated the Navarrese at Cocherel in May 1364 but was defeated at Auray the following September by the English-backed side in a renewal of an old dispute over the Breton succession.

When war broke out again with England in 1369 over France's failure to abide by its treaty obligations, Charles followed du Guesclin's military advice, winning for the French so many victories that, by 1375, the settlement of 1360 was virtually nullified. In 1378, after learning of plots of the King of Navarre, Charles dispossessed him of all his French lands except Cherbourg. That December Charles made, unsuccessfully, his last attempt to deprive Duke Jean IV of Brittany.

Charles and his ministers, the Marmousets, strengthened the royal authority, introduced a standing army, built a powerful navy, and instituted reforms that put fiscal authority more firmly in the hands of the crown. A patron of the arts and of learning, he established the royal library and interested himself in the embellishment of the Louvre and in the construction of the palace at Saint-Pol.

Charles's last political acts were primarily concerned with the rivalry between the two newly elected popes. In the last year of his life he sided with Pope Clement VII against Pope Urban VI that made him chiefly responsible for the great schism of the papacy. His son, Charles VI, succeeded him.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

Charles V "le Sage" King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 2nd cousins 20 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Charles VI, the Well-Beloved

1380-1422

b. December 3, 1368, Paris

d. October 21, 1422, Paris

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France)

Reign: September 16, 1380 - October 21, 1422

Coronation: November 4, 1380, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

Regents: August/September 1380 - early 1382 [minority]: Regent: Louis, duc d'Anjou (b. July 23, 1339 - d. Sept. 20, 1384)

August 2, 1380 - November 1, 1388 [minority]

Captain General of the Kingdom (Capitaine général du royaume):

Philippe, duc de Bourgogne [byname: the Bold/French: le Hardi]

(b. Jan. 15, 1342 - d. Apr. 27, 1404)

November 6, 1417 - late 1418 [incapacity]

Lieutenant General of the Kingdom (Lieutenant général du royaume):

Dauphin Charles de France (later Charles VII)

June 24, 1418 - October 30, 1422 [incapacity]

Regent (Régent):

Dauphin Charles de France (later Charles VII)

May 21, 1420 - August 31, 1422 [according to the Treaty of Troyes]

Regent (Régent):

Henri V, king of England (later Henri II, king of France)

End of reign: October 21, 1422, deceased

Name/byname: Dauphin of Viennois (dauphin de Viennois); byname: Well-Beloved, Mad (French: le Bien-Aimé, l'Insensé)

The elder surviving son and successor of Charles V, Charles VI was crowned on November 4, 1380, at Reims at the age of 11 by the archbishop Richard de Picque (Besançon). Charles remained under the tutelage of his uncles until his declaration to rule alone in 1388.

During those early years France was ruled by his uncles, dukes of Anjou, Burgundy, Berry and Bourbon, and their creation, the administrative Council of 12. Duc d'Anjou soon removed himself from influence by seeking the throne of Naples, Jean, duc de Berry, received the lieutenancy of Languedoc, and Philippe, duc de Bourgogne, conducted the council, but his policies drained the royal treasury and provoked popular uprisings in France and in Flanders.

On November 2, 1388, Charles VI declared that he assumes the government. He took as his counselor his brother Louis, duc d'Orléans, and recalled his father's ministers, the Marmousets. Governmental reorganization and reforms were initiated, and a number of ordinances were promulgated in early 1389. The following winter Charles visited the antipope Clement VII in Avignon and discussed plans to install Clement as pope in Rome. Reports of those plans brought about the resumption of negotiations with England. England's king Richard II favored the Roman pope Boniface IX. While efforts were being made for peace in 1392, however, Charles became ill with a fever and convulsions, the first of his 44 attacks of madness. The attacks lasted from three to nine months and were interspersed with three- to five-month periods of sanity for the remainder of his life.

Royal authority waned and Philippe of Burgundy returned to power. His rule was challenged by Louis d'Orléans and the conflict eventually resulted in war between Philippe's successor, Jean the Fearless, and supporters of the Orleanists, known as Armagnacs. The Burgundians arranged the murder of Louis (Nov. 23, 1407) and allied themselves with King Henry V of England, who invaded France and won the Battle of Agincourt (Oct. 25, 1415) against the French.

On November 6, 1417, the 14-year-old dauphin, Charles, was named lieutenant general of the kingdom, but on May 29, 1418, the Burgundians occupied the capital. On June 24, 1418 [Compte de René Boulegny], Dauphin Charles assumed the title of regent for his deranged father, who disapproved this act and on May 20, 1420, signed the Treaty of Troyes for the marriage of his daughter Catherine de Valois to Henry V of England, who was declared regent of France and heir to the French throne. After Charles VI's death on October 21, 1422, the country north of the Loire was under the control of England, while southern France, excluding English Aquitaine, was loyal to the dauphin as Charles VII.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

Charles VI "Le Bien-Aimbe" FRANCE and the Molloys are 3rd cousins 19 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Charles VII, the Victorius

1422-61

b. 21/22 Feb 1403, Paris

d. 22 Jul 1461, Mehun-sur-Yèvre

Titles: Regent of the Kingdom (Regent du royaume) [June 24, 1418 - October 30, 1422]

By the Grace of God, King of France (Dei gracia Francorum Rex; par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France)

Reign: 30 Oct 1422 - 22 Jul 1461

Chronology: 17 Jul 1429, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

22 Jul 1461, deceased

Name/byname: Count of Ponthieu (comte de Ponthieu) [from 1403/1404]; Duke of Touraine (duc de Touraine) [from 15 Jul 1416]; Dauphin of Viennois (dauphin de Viennois) [from 13 Apr 1417]; byname: Well-Served, Victorious (French: Le Bien-Servi or Le Victorieux)

Charles was the fifth son of King Charles VI and his wife, Isabella of Bavaria. On the death of Dauphin Jean (5 Apr 1417), the king issued lettres patent creating Charles Dauphin of Viennois (13 Apr 1417). On November 6, 1417, he was named lieutenant general of the kingdom, but on May 29, 1418, the Burgundians occupied the capital, and Charles had to flee to Bourges. There he put himself at the head of the Armagnac party and on June 24, 1418 [Compte de René Boulegny], assumed the title of regent for the deranged Charles VI. In 1420, the Treaty of Troyes recognized English king Henry V as heir to the French throne, excluding Charles. Charles's supporters, however, set up an administration in Poitiers and Bourges the jurisdiction of which extended over all of France south of the Loire River. Charles learnt about the death of his father on October 24, 1422, in Mehun-sur-Yèvre. Ruling as regent, he hesitated to accept the title of king for six days, but then agreed to adopt the crown on October 30.

The army of Charles was repulsed at Verneuil in August 1424, and he tried once again to effect a reconciliation with the Duke of Burgundy. In 1425, he dissociated himself from the Armagnacs, but the English and the Burgundians revived the war and on October 12, 1428, laid siege to Orléans. Discouraged by many years of war, the king thought of retiring to Spain or of ceding to English pressure. But the defense of Orléans became for the French a symbol of their struggle against the enemy. Joan de Arc, the visionary peasant girl from Lorraine, restored the French army's confidence and liberated Orléans. On July 17, 1429, after a victorious journey with his army, Charles was crowned at Reims by the archbishop of Chatres, Renaud. In 1435, after protracted negotiations, Philip of Burgundy concluded a separate peace with France at Arras: the King condemned the murder of Philip's father, and the Duke recognized Charles as his sovereign. A new phase then opened up in Charles's life. Between 1425 and 1439, he gradually acquired the right to levy taxes that previously had to be approved by the States General, thus gaining financial independence.

The administration of the realm was reorganized, and in 1438 Charles promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, limiting papal authority over the church in France. The Sanction also increased the King's control over the granting of ecclesiastical revenues. The discipline of the army was improved and methods of recruitment made more efficient by the ordinances of 1439, 1445, and 1448. In 1437 the King took command of his armies again for the first time since his coronation and returned to Paris, which had been liberated from the English the previous year. The power of the nobility was lessened by his reforms; encouraged by the Duke of Burgundy they formed a coalition against the King (the Praguerie). Charles reacted skillfully and energetically, and the rebellion was put down (1440). Charles renewed the war in 1441 both north of Paris and in Guyenne, in the southwest. In 1444, negotiations finally brought a general truce, but no permanent peace was concluded, and hostilities were resumed in 1449. Charles campaigned successfully in Normandy and took possession of its capital, Rouen, on November 20, 1450. In 1453, after the victory of Castillon and the surrender of Bordeaux, Guyenne returned to France after having been associated with England for three centuries.

Charles VII King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 4th cousins 18 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Louis XI

1461-83

b. 3 Jul 1423, Bourges

d. 30 Aug 1483, Plessis-les-Tours

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Dei gracia Francorum Rex; par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France)

Reign: 22 Jul 1461 - 30 Aug 1483

Chronology: 15 Aug 1461, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

30 Aug 1483, deceased

Other names/titles: Dauphin of Viennois (dauphin de Viennois)

Louis was the son of Charles VII of France by his consort Mary of Anjou. Father and son became wholly estranged in 1445 and Louis fled to the Netherlands to the court of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. After five years of exile, Louis became king of France when Charles died in 1461. Louis immediately returned to France and marched to Reims, where he was crowned on August 15, 1461, by the archbishop Jean Juvénal de Ursins. The new king entered Paris on August 31.

Louis XI faced the opposition of princes headed by Jean II, duc de Bourbon, and François II of Brittany. Charles the Bold of Burgundy, supported the alliance and the King's own brother, Charles de France became a tool of the rebels. In 1465 the princes formed the League of the Public Weal against Louis. All France seemed on the verge of anarchy, but the lesser gentry refused to rise against the King and the bourgeoisie rallied to him. After some fighting, the league was brought to an end by treaties with the Burgundians and with Brittany.

Charles the Bold allied himself with François of Brittany and with Edward IV of England, but in 1468 Louis invaded Brittany and detached François from the alliance. During the interview with Charles the Bold at Péronne (October 1468), the duke put Louis under house arrest and intended to dethrone him but finally forced him to make far-reaching concessions. Louis attempted to nullify the Anglo-Burgundian alliance by assisting the ousted House of Lancaster against Edward IV, but the final defeat of the Lancastrians (May 1471) put an end to his hope. Having already attacked Burgundy, Louis found himself facing a new host of enemies, including Charles de France, Jean V d'Armagnac, and Juan II of Aragon. But, after Charles de France died in 1472, both Charles the Bold and François of Brittany signed truces.

Louis subsidized the Swiss confederates and René II of Lorraine in their war against Charles the Bold, and Charles was defeated and killed in battle at Nancy on Jan. 5, 1477. Louis thereupon proceeded to dismember the Burgundian state, eager to reunite its French fiefs to the royal domain and to take as much else as he could. Charles's daughter Mary, however, married the Austrian archduke Maximilian, who defended her inheritance against Louis. Finally, by the Treaty of Arras (1482), Louis retained full sovereignty over the Duchy of Burgundy, Picardy, and Boulonnais and possession of Franche-Comté and Artois as the dowry of Margaret of Austria, daughter of Mary and Maximilian, fiancée of his infant son and heir, the future Charles VIII.

Louis XI was a tireless worker, and overwork may have precipitated the cerebral arteriosclerosis that finally affected him. For his last two or three years he lived in seclusion at Plessis-les-Tours, in Touraine, where he died in 1483.

Louis XI King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 5th cousins 17 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Charles VIII, the Affable

1483-98

b. 30 Jun 1470, Amboise

d. 7 Apr 1498, Amboise

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France)

Reign: 30 Aug 1483 - 7 Apr 1498

Coronations: 30 May 1484, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims, as King of France 1

12 May 1495, Naples, as King of Sicily

Absence: 29 Aug 1494 (departed from Grenoble) - 28 Oct 1495 (entered Grenoble): wars in Italy

Regent: 9 Aug 1494 - Oct 1495 [absence]: Lieutenant General of the Kingdom: Pierre de Bourbon, Duke de Bourbon (duc de Bourbon) (b. 15 Dec 1438 - d. 6/10 Oct 1503)

Other titles/names: Original name: Charles de France; First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [30 Jun 1470 - 30 Aug 1483]; King of Sicily and Jerusalem (roi de Sicile et de Jérusalem) [22 Feb 1495 - 7 Jul 1496]; byname: l'Affable

End of reign: 7 Apr 1498, deceased

The only son of Louis XI and Charlotte of Savoy, Charles inherited the throne on 30 Aug 1483, in the age of 13, and was crowned on 30 May 1484, at Reims by the archbishop Pierre de Laval.

Though Charles VIII was legally of age, the government in the first years of his reign was in the hands of his sister Anne de Beaujeu and her husband Pierre de Bourbon. After his marriage to Anne of Brittany in 1491, however, Charles was persuaded by his favorite, Étienne de Vesc, to free himself from the Beaujeus. By his Breton marriage Charles forfeited rights to Artois and the Franche-Comté that he had acquired by his engagement to Margaret of Austria, and he also agreed in the Treaty of Étaples (1492) to pay heavy compensation to king Henry VII of England for the abandonment of English interests in Brittany. Furthermore, in 1493, by the Treaty of Barcelona, he ceded Roussillon and Cerdagne back to Aragon.

The motive for these cessions was to free his hands for his grand enterprise, an expedition to Italy to assert the right to the kingdom of Sicily (commonly referred to as kingdom of Naples) that he had inherited from the Angevins. This absurd ambition inaugurated a series of Italian wars lasting more than 50 years and gaining the French kings only momentary glory in return for a vast outlay of men and money. Having borrowed money left and right to raise a great army, Charles appointed duc de Bourbon lieutenant general of the kingdom (9 Aug 1494) and crossed Italy unopposed without suspecting that he was leaving enemies behind him. Charles reached Rome on 31 Dec 1494 and entered Naples in triumph on 22 Feb 1495, and was crowned there on 12 May 1495, but already the opposition of Milan, Austria, Venice, and the Pope was rallying against him. He departed from Naples on 20 May 1495, and escaped with difficulty from the Battle of Fornovo and had lost his conquests by the time he returned to France. While preparing for another expedition, Charles VIII unexpectedly died on 7 Apr 1498 in the château of Amboise.

Notes: 1 See Ernest Petit, "Séjours de Charles VIII," p. 8, and R. P. Anselme, "Histoire de la maison royale de France," p. 126.

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Louis XII, the Father of His People

1498-1515

b. 27 Jun 1462, Blois

d. 1 Jan 1515, Paris

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France)

Reign: 7 Apr 1498 - 1 Jan 1515

Coronation: 27 May 1498, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

End of reign: 1 Jan 1515, deceased

Other names/titles: Original name: Louis de Valois; byname: Father of the People (père du peuple); Duke of Orléans (duc d'Orléans) [from 4 Jan 1465]; Duke of Milan (duc de Milan) [2 Sep 1499 - 3 Feb 1500, 9 Apr 1500 - Jul 1512]; King of Sicily and Jerusalem (roi de Sicile et de Jérusalem) [25 Jul 1501 - Mar 1504]; Lord of Genoa (seigneur de Gênes) [26 Oct 1499 - before 10 Apr 1507, 28 Apr 1507 - before 29 Jun 1512, 8-16 Jun 1513]

Son of Charles, duc d'Orléans, and Marie de Clèves, Louis succeeded his father as duke in 1465. In 1476 he was forced to marry Jeanne de France, daughter of his second cousin King Louis XI. During the minority of King Charles VIII he launched a revolt and was imprisoned (1488). Restored to royal favor, he commanded troops at Asti during Charles VIII's invasion of Italy (1494-95) and became heir presumptive after the death of dauphin Charles-Orland (1495). On the death of Charles VIII, Louis inherited the throne and was crowned at Reims (27 May 1498) by cardinal and archbishop Guillaume Briçonnet.

After becoming king, Louis XII annulled his marriage in order to marry Charles's widow, Anne de Bretagne, and thereby reinforce the personal union of her duchy and his kingdom. Then he claimed the duchy of Milan and drove his rival Ludovico Sforza from Milan in the summer of 1499, but Sforza reoccupied it the following winter.

Pursuing Charles VIII's claims to the kingdom of Naples, Louis concluded the Treaty of Granada (1500) with Ferdinand II of Aragon for a partition of that kingdom, which was conquered in 1501; but a year later the two kings were at war over the partition, and by March 1504 the French had lost all of Naples. By the Treaty of Blois of September 1504, the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I recognized Louis as duke of Milan in return for a promise that Milan and also Burgundy should go to Maximilian's grandson, the future Charles V, and his fiancée, Claude of France, daughter of Louis XII and Anne, unless Louis should have a son; meanwhile Claude was the natural heiress to Brittany. The French were enraged, however, at the possibility of losing Brittany, and representatives of the three estates were assembled by Louis at Tours in May 1506 to insist on Claude's betrothal to his heir presumptive, François d'Angoulême.

Crossing the Alps again to subdue rebels in Genoa, Louis met Ferdinand at Savona in June 1507 to consolidate a new entente formalized in 1508 as the League of Cambrai against Venice. Gradually, the League fell apart, and in the end most of its members joined England in a Holy League against France, invading it at several points.

Two marriages of Louis XII were not childless, but his daughters could not succeed him according to the Salic law of succession. Louis died on 1 Jan 1515.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

Louis XII King Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 5th cousins 17 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Francis I

1515-47

b. 12 Sep 1494, Cognac

d. 31 Mar 1547, Rambouillet

Title: King of France (Roi de France)

Reign: 1 Jan 1515 - 31 Mar 1547

Coronation: 25 Jan 1515, Reims

Absence: Jul 1515 - 1516, 1525 - 1526, Italian wars and captivity in Spain

Regent: 15 Jul 1515 - Sep 1516 and 12 Aug 1523 - Mar 1526 [absence]: Louise de Savoie, Duchess of Angoulême and Anjou [from 1516], Duchess of Bourbon [from 1523] (b. 11 Sep 1476, Pont-d'Ain - d. 22 Sep 1531, Grez-sur-Loing)

End of reign: 31 Mar 1547, deceased

Other titles/names: Original name: François de Valois-Orleáns; Count of Angoulême (comte d'Angoulême) [from 1 Jan 1496]; Duke of Valois (duc de Valois) [from 1499]; Dauphin of Viennois (dauphin de Viennois) [at least since 1513]; Duke of Milan (duc de Milan) [6 Oct 1515 - 19 Nov 1521, 3 Oct 1524 - 24 Feb 1525]; Lord of Genoa (seigneur de Gênes) [7 Sep 1515 - before 2 Jun 1522, 19 Aug 1527 - before 11 Oct 1528]

François was the son of Charles de Valois-Orleáns, comte d'Angoulême, and Louise de Savoie. On the accession of his cousin, Louis XII, in 1498, François became heir presumptive and was given the Duchy of Valois. Shortly before his death, Louis XII married him to Claude (18 May 1514), his 15-year-old daughter. On 1 Jan 1515, François became king of France and was crowned at Reims by archbishop Robert de Lénoncourt (25 Jan 1515).

Louis XII had left an army prepared to reconquer the Duchy of Milan. François entrusted the regency to his mother, Louise de Savoie, on 15 Jul 1515, and marched to Italy. At the Battle of Marignano (13-14 Sep 1515), he defeated the Swiss mercenaries of Duke Massimiliano Sforza and his ally Pope Leo X. The battle resulted in the French recovery of Milan and in the conclusion of the peace treaty of Geneva (7 Nov 1515) between France and the Swiss Confederation. Within the year, the new king of Spain, Carlos I, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor (1519), signed the peace of Noyon (13 Aug 1516), which gave Milan to France. A mortal rivalry between François I and Carlos I led to 27 years of savage warfare, interrupted by truces that were invariably violated.

Imperial troops restored the Sforza in 1522, but the French army retook Milan in 1524. At the battle of Pavia (24 Feb 1525), the French were defeated and François I was captured. The Emperor put forward exorbitant claims, but François refused to concede. Resigned to die in prison, the king abdicated (Nov 1525) in favor of his eldest son, Dauphin François, but the abdication was not accepted by the court and French ambassadors concluded the harsh Treaty of Madrid, which the king signed before his release on 13 Mar 1526. Soon François headed a new anti-Spanish alliance, the Holy League of Cognac (May 1526), which united France with the papacy, the Sforza, Florence, and Venice. The French infantry marched to Rome and conquered the city on 6 May 1527. By that time the king's mother reached an agreement with Margaret of Austria, the Emperor's aunt, to stop the struggle and the ensuing Treaty of Cambrai (3 Aug 1529) softened that of Madrid. François had to abandon his allies, give up Italy, and pay 2 million gold crowns.

When religious strife broke out in France, the King tried to moderate the growing fanaticism. The war with Carlos was resumed in 1536. One of François' last diplomatic achievements was an alliance with the Turks against the Emperor. François I died on 31 Mar 1547, and was succeeded by his second son, Henri II.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France.

King Francois I - Heart _____________King Francois I - body minus heart

Sources: text: La Grande Encyclopédie, vol. 18; Auguste-Philibert Chaalons d'Argé, "Sacre et couronnement des rois et des empereurs en France," Paris, 1852; R. P. Anselme, "Histoire de la maison royale de France et des grands officiers de la Couronne," Paris, 1674; image: portrait of François I by Jean Clouet.

Franpcois I, King Of FRANCE and the MOLLOYS are 7th cousins 15 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Henry II

1547-59

b. 31 Mar 1519, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

d. 10 Jul 1559, Paris

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France/Dei Gratia Francorum Rex)

Reign: 31 Mar 1547 - 10 Jul 1559

Chronology: 31 Mar 1547, succeeded his father, François I

26 Jul 1547, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

10 Jul 1559, deceased

Other titles/names: Duke of Orléans (duc d'Orléans) [31 Mar 1519 - 10 Aug 1536]; First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [10 Aug 1536 - 31 Mar 1547]; Duke of Britanny (duc de Bretagne) [10 Aug 1536 - 31 Mar 1547]

The second son of King François I and Claude de France, Henri was made Duke of Orléans on his birth and became heir to the throne when his elder brother, François, died on 10 Aug 1536. Henri acceded to the French throne after the death of his father and was crowned at Reims by Charles, cardinal de Lorraine, on 26 Jul 1547.

Upon his accession, Henri II undertook administrative reforms. The functions of the different sections of the king's council became more specialized; the commissaries sent into the provinces "to exercise the king's orders" were the forerunners of the intendants; and intermediary tribunals were established between the local justices and the parlements (high courts). In foreign affairs Henri continued his father's warfare against the Holy Roman emperor Charles V. He signed the Treaty of Chambord in 1552 with the German Protestant princes, promising them troops and subsidies; in return, they agreed to France's taking the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. Though Henri made a truce with Charles in 1556, war was soon resumed when a French expedition was sent into Italy under François, Duke of Guise (1557). The Spanish in the Netherlands, however, besieged the town of Saint-Quentin in Picardy, and Montmorency was defeated in an attempt to relieve it. After Guise had somewhat improved the situation by taking Calais, Guînes, and Thionville, the financial difficulties of both France and Spain and Henri's desire to fight Protestantism in France led to the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559). Henri was rigorous in the repression of Protestantism, which was approaching the zenith of its power in France. In 1547 he created the Chambre Ardente in the Parlement de Paris for trying heretics. His Edict of Écouen (1559) laid the ground for systematic persecution of the Protestants.

The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was to be cemented by the marriages of Henri's daughter Elizabeth de France and his sister Margaret to Philip II of Spain and to Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, respectively. In a tournament during the festivities (30 Jun 1559), Henri was hit in the head by a lance of Gabriel, Count of Montgomery, captain of the Scottish guard, and died 10 days later in the Palace of Tournelles.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France

Henri II, King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 8th cousins 14 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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Francis II

1559-60

b. 19 Jan 1544, Fontainebleau

d. 5 Dec 1560, Orléans

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France/Dei Gratia Francorum Rex)1

Reign: 10 Jul 1559 - 5 Dec 1560

Chronology: 10 Jul 1559, succeeded his father, Henri II

17 Sep 1559, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

5 Dec 1560, deceased

Other names/titles: Original name: François de Valois; First Son of France and Dauphin of Viennois (premier fils de France et dauphin de Viennois) [from 19 Jan 1544]; King of Scotland [24 Apr 1558 - 5 Dec 1560]

The eldest son of King Henri II and Catherine de Médicis, François was married on 24 Apr 1558, to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. He inherited the throne of France after a sudden death of his father and was crowned at Reims by Charles, cardinal de Lorraine, on 18 Sep 1559.

Young François became a tool of the Guises, who saw an opportunity for power and a chance to break the Huguenots. To defeat the Guises, Louis de Bourbon, prince de Condé and Huguenot leader, planned the conspiracy of Amboise (17 Mar 1560), an abortive coup d'état in which some Huguenots surrounded the Château of Amboise and tried to seize the king. The conspiracy was put down, and its failure strengthened the power of the Guises. This in turn frightened François' mother, Catherine, who then tried to balance the situation by securing the appointment of the moderate Michel de l'Hospital as chancellor. In the hopes of gaining peace and rehabilitating court finances, the Estates-General was summoned, but François died soon after the session began at Orléans.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France

Heart Only

Franpcois II King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 9th cousins 13 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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CHARLES IX

b. 27 Jun 1550, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

d. 30 May 1574, Vincennes

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France)

Reign: 5 Dec 1560 - 30 May 1574

Accession: 5 Dec 1560, succeeded to his brother, François II

Coronation: 15 May 1561, consecrated and crowned, Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims

End of reign: 30 May 1574, deceased

Other names/titles: Original name: Charles-Maximilien de Valois; Duke d'Orléans (duc d'Orléans) [from 27 Jun 1550]

The second son of Henri II and Catherine de Médicis, Charles became king1 on the death of his brother François II and governed under tutelage of his mother and the Council of government. After the king reached the age of 13, he was legally entitled to proclaim himself major in lit de justice addressed to the Parlement de Rouen on 17 Aug 1563. However, he remained under his mother's domination, being incapable of choosing and following a policy of his own.

To strengthen the prestige of the crown, Catherine took Charles on a tour of France from 1564 to 1566. The kingdom, however, was torn by the hostility between the Catholics and the Huguenots. The victories of his brother, the Duke of Anjou (later Henri III), over the Huguenots at Jarnac and Moncontour in 1569 made Charles jealous, so that in 1571, when the Huguenot Gaspard de Coligny came to court, Charles was persuaded to favor a Huguenot plan for intervention against the Spanish in the Netherlands; Charles sanctioned a defensive alliance with England and Huguenot aid to the Dutch. All this came to nothing, however, when Catherine, alarmed at the new policy and at Coligny's ascendancy, and dismayed at the reaction to an unsuccessful attempt on Coligny's life (22 Aug 1572), induced Charles to order the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (23-24 Aug 1572).

The massacre apparently haunted Charles for the rest of his life. His health deteriorated, and he became increasingly melancholy. He died of tuberculosis, leaving no children by his consort, Elizabeth of Austria, whom he had married in 1570, but one son, Charles, later Duke of Angoulême, by his mistress Marie Touchet.

Notes: 1 As queen mother, Catherine de Médicis asserted her right to the regency immediately upon the demise of the crown to Charles IX, but the Estates-General did not act on her request to confirm her in the regency. The Act of 21 Dec 1560, issued on behalf of Charles IX, constituted the Council to govern France for the period of king's minority. However, Catherine exercised the rights of regents with the support of the Council until Charles attained majority. Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre (b. 22/25 Apr 1518, La Fère - d. 17 Nov 1562, Les Andelys), who claimed a special position in the government, was appointed lieutenant-general of the kingdom (27 Mar 1561), but he died the next year.

Charles IX King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 9th cousins 13 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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HENRI III

b. 19 Sep 1551, Fontainebleau

d. 2 Aug 1589, Saint-Cloud

Title: By the Grace of God, King of France and Poland, Grand Prince of Lithuania (Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Pologne et grand duc de Lithuanie)

Reign: 30 May 1574 - 2 Aug 1589

Chronology: 30 May 1574, succeeded (in absentia) his brother, Charles IX

6 Sep 1574, accepted the royal authority from his mother, Queen Regent Catherine, Lyon

13 Feb 1575, crowned, Reims

2 Aug 1589, deceased (assassination)

Regents: 30 May - 6 Sep 1574 [absence]: Queen Regent (Reine régente): Catherine-Marie-Romola de Médicis (b. 13 Apr 1519, Florence, Tuscany - d. 5 Jan 1589, Blois, France)

Other names/titles: Original name: Édouard-Alexandre de Valois, superseded by Henri de Valois at his confirmation (Mar 1564); Duke of Angoulême (duc d'Angoulême) [from 19 Sep 1551]; Duke of Orléans (duc d'Orléans) [from 5 Dec 1560]; Duke of Anjou (duc d'Anjou) [from Feb 1566]; Henryk Walezy (in later Lithuanian sources Henrikas Valua), Polish King and Lithuanian Grand Prince (Król polski i wielki ksiaze litewski) [election proclaimed 12 May 1573; reign: 21 Feb 1574 (coronation, Kraków) - 12 May 1575 (deemed to have abdicated, but reserved the titles)]

The third son of Henri II and Catherine de Médicis, Henri was at his birth made duc d'Angoulême. In 1572 he was presented as a candidate for the throne of Poland, to which he was finally elected in May 1573. Henri departed Paris for Poland on 28 Sep 1573 and arrived in to his kingdom in Kraków on 18 Feb 1574. There he was crowned (21 Feb 1574, but soon received the news that his elder brother, Charles IX, died. Henri secretly abandoned Poland on 18 Jun 1574), and arrived via Venice to Lyon on 6 Sep 1574, where he accepted the royal authority from his mother, Queen Catherine, who became regent upon the demise of the crown. Henri III was crowned at Reims on 13 Feb 1575, by Louis de Lorraine, cardinal de Guise.

The French Wars of Religion (1562-98) continued during Henri III's reign. In May 1576 he agreed to the Peace of Monsieur, but his concession to the Huguenots in the Edict of Beaulieu angered the Roman Catholics, who formed the Holy League to protect their own interests. Henri resumed the war against the Huguenots, but the Estates-General, meeting at Blois in 1576, was weary of Henri's extravagance and refused to grant him the necessary subsidies. The Peace of Bergerac (1577) ended the hostilities temporarily; the Huguenots lost some of their liberties by the Edict of Poitiers, and the Holy League was dissolved. In 1584, however, the Roman Catholics were alarmed when the Huguenot leader, Henri de Navarre (later Henri IV), became heir to the throne on the death of Henri III's brother François, and the League was revived under the leadership of Henri, Duc de Guise.

Henri III tried to placate the Holy League by revoking past edicts that had granted toleration to the Huguenots. A rising of the people of Paris on 12 May 1588 (Day of the Barricades), caused the king to flee to Chartres. In December 1588 he took advantage of a meeting of the Estates-General at Blois to have the Duke de Guise and his brother Louis, the cardinal of Lorraine, assassinated (23 and 24 Dec 1588). This exacerbated the League's hostility, which derecognized Henri III and installed (17 Feb 1589) the duc de Mayenne as Lieutenant General. Henri III was compelled to ally himself with Henri de Navarre. Together they laid siege to Paris, but on 1 Aug 1589, Jacques Clément, a fanatical Jacobin friar stabbed him in Saint Cloud. Before he died, Henri, who left no issue, acknowledged Henri de Navarre as his heir.

Burial Location: Saint Denis Basilique, Paris, France

Heart Only

Henri III King Of FRANCE and the Molloys are 9th cousins 13 times removed. Their common ancestors are Charles I, Prince Of FRANCE and Marguerite Princess Of SICILY & NAPLES.

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